[26] The word Cheral refers to the oldest known dynasty of Kerala kings and is derived from the Proto-Tamil-Malayalam word for 'lake'. The eastern parts are fertile coastal plains. [393][394] According to some scholars, the Mappilas are the oldest settled Muslim community in South Asia. Most of the park consists of broad volcanic plateaus with an average elevation of about 7,875 feet (2,400 metres). [532] Unlike in many other states, the urban-rural divide is not visible in Kerala with respect to mobile phone penetration. [184], There are six Municipal corporations in Kerala that govern Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, Kochi, Thrissur, Kozhikode and Kannur. [383] According to 2011 Census of India figures, 54.73% of Kerala's residents were Hindus, 26.56% are Muslims, 18.38% are Christians, and the remaining 0.32% follow another religion or have no religious affiliation. For other uses, see. Kerala is a state in the Republic of India.It is in the south-west of the country. [347] These changes stem largely from efforts begun in the late 19th century by the kingdoms of Cochin and Travancore to boost social welfare. It is surrounded by the Western Ghats mountain range on the West and North, with reserve forests and the (Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve) on the northern side. [569] Munnar is 4,500 feet above sea level and is known for tea plantations, and a variety of flora and fauna. The state has three principal physical zones; The coastal strip, called Karavalli, between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, which is lowland, with moderate to high rainfall levels. Geography as a discipline can be split broadly into two main subsidiary fields: human geography and physical geography. [221] Other major sectors are tourism, manufacturing, home gardens, animal husbandry and business process outsourcing. Rocher, Ludo (1986). [554] CNN Travel listed Kerala amongst its '19 best places to visit in 2019'. Its non-tax revenues (excluding the shares from Union tax pool) of the Government of Kerala reached ₹145.87 billion (US$2.0 billion) in 2020-2021. [463] Other known festivals are Makaravilakku,[464] Chinakkathoor Pooram, Attukal Pongala and Nenmara Vallangi Vela[465] Other than these, festivals locally known as utsavams are conducted by many temples mostly on annual basis. [461] Some festivals include Poorams, the best known of these being the Thrissur Pooram. Physical Setting Kerala occupies a narrow strip of land, not more than 360 miles (555 km.) [355] Kerala has the lowest homicide rate among Indian states, with 1.1 per 100,000 in 2011. In the Malabar Rebellion, Mappila Muslims of Malabar rioted against Hindu zamindars and the British Raj. Panchavadyam is a form of percussion ensemble, in which artists use five types of percussion instrument. [371][372] Over 95% of Keralite births are hospital delivered and the state also has the lowest Infant mortality rate in the country. [303], Kochi Metro is the metro rail system in the city of Kochi. Water bodies cover about 55.25 km2 (21.3 sq mi), while forest area is estimated to be 498.61 km2 (193 sq mi). They are locally known as "muniyara", derived from muni (hermit or sage) and ara (dolmen). [171]:11 Its 9,400 km2 of forests include tropical wet evergreen and semi-evergreen forests (lower and middle elevations—3,470 km2), tropical moist and dry deciduous forests (mid-elevations—4,100 km2 and 100 km2, respectively), and montane subtropical and temperate (shola) forests (highest elevations—100 km2). [563] In 2011, tourist inflow to Kerala crossed the 10-million mark. – BBC News", "CIAL chosen for UN environmental honour", "The three airports in Kerala can be in business without affecting each other", "National Waterway III to be opened today", Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901, "Size, Growth Rate and Distribution of Population", "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011", "Competitive religious entrepreneurs: Christian missionaries and female education in colonial and post-colonial India", "Kerala Government Has Unveiled A Policy To Enforce Constitutional Rights Of Transgenders", "Why Kerala's free sex-change surgeries will offer a new lifeline for the transgender community", "After She-Taxi, Kerala to launch G-Taxi for transgenders", "How Kerala left the country behind on transgender rights", "Affirming their right, they march with pride", "Kerala govt passes order to use 'transgender' instead of 'third/other gender, "Only 'transgender' in official communication", "India Human Development Report 2011: Towards Social Inclusion", "Human Development Index rose 21 per cent; Kerala tops chart", "Growth, reforms lift living standards in India: Human development Index", "Tripura tops literacy rate with 94.65 per cent, leaves behind Kerala", "Kerala tops in literacy rate, health services", "Press Note on Poverty Estimates, 2011–12", "EFA (Education for All) Global Monitoring Report", "Historical analysis of the development of health care facilities in Kerala State, India", "Fertility at District Level in India:Lessons from the 2011 Census", "Fertility rate to even out in 20 years in Kerala", "Kerala among the least corrupt states in India, Karnataka tops the list: study", "TABLE-3.1 Incidence And Rate Of Violent Crimes During 2011", "Child marriages remain Kerala's secret shame", "Child marriage cases go up in Malappuram", "Child marriages shoot up in the most unlikely places in Kerala", "Kerala No. [110][111][112] In the 18th Century, Travancore King Sree Anizham Thirunal Marthanda Varma annexed all the kingdoms up to Cochin through military conquests, resulting in the rise of Travancore to pre-eminence in Kerala. [73][74], Merchants from West Asia and Southern Europe established coastal posts and settlements in Kerala. [210][530] BSNL, Airtel, Vodafone Idea Limited, Jio are the major cell phone service providers. The culture is a synthesis of Aryan, Dravidian, Arab, and European cultures,[21] developed over millennia, under influences from other parts of India and abroad. The name Male is thought to come from the Malayalam word Mala ('hill'). E., "Mappila" in "The Encyclopedia of Islam". The mean maximum temperature is 95 °F (35 °C) and the mean minimum temperature is 69 °F (20 °C). [8] The southwest monsoon, from June to September is the principal rainy season. [412], Judaism reached Kerala in the 10th century BCE during the time of King Solomon. [248] A package of ₹2.5 million (US$35,000) was declared for each of the cities to develop service level improvement plan (SLIP), a plan for better functioning of the local urban bodies in the cities of Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, Alappuzha, Kochi, Thrissur, Kozhikode, and Palakkad. [550][553] In 2012, it overtook the Taj Mahal to be the number one travel destination in Google's search trends for India. Tulu and Kannada are spoken mainly in Kasargod district. Until the early 1980s, Kerala was a relatively unknown destination compared to other states in the country. Some occupational communities such as Kaniyar were known as native medicine men in relation to the practice of such streams of medical systems, apart from their traditional vocation. [28] It is synthesis of Aryan and Dravidian cultures,[452] defined by its antiquity and the organic continuity sustained by the Malayali people. [459], Many of the temples in Kerala hold festivals on specific days of the year. [159] Around 65% of the rainfall occurs from June to August corresponding to the Southwest monsoon, and the rest from September to December corresponding to Northeast monsoon. Three quarters of the land area of Kerala was under thick forest up to 18th century. [323]:10–12, There is a tradition of matrilineal inheritance in Kerala, where the mother is the head of the household. In 2012, National Geographic's Traveller magazine named Kerala as one of the "ten paradises of the world"[550][551] and "50 must see destinations of a lifetime". It is the only metro rail system in Kerala. [229] Unemployment in 2007 was estimated at 9.4%;[230] chronic issues are underemployment, low employability of youth, and a low female labour participation rate of only 13.5%,[231]:5, 13 as was the practice of Nokku kooli, "wages for looking on". [450][451], The culture of Kerala is composite and cosmopolitan in nature and it is an integral part of Indian culture. Many of the rivers are small and entirely fed by monsoon rain. [555], Kerala's beaches, backwaters, lakes, mountain ranges, waterfalls, ancient ports, palaces, religious institutions[556] and wildlife sanctuaries are major attractions for both domestic and international tourists. The production of pepper and natural rubber contributes significantly to the total national output. The agricultural sector has a share of 9.34% in the sectoral distribution of Gross State Domestic Product at Constant Price, while the secondary and tertiary sectors have contributed 23.94% and 66.72%, respectively. The state has the highest media exposure in India with newspapers publishing in nine languages, mainly English and Malayalam. [533], By the 21st century, almost all of the native sports and games from Kerala have either disappeared or become just an art form performed during local festivals; including Poorakkali, Padayani, Thalappandukali, Onathallu, Parichamuttukali, Velakali, and Kilithattukali. [87] A second Chera Kingdom (c. 800–1102), also known as Kulasekhara dynasty of Mahodayapuram (present-day Kodungallur), was established by Kulasekhara Varman, which ruled over a territory comprising the whole of modern Kerala and a smaller part of modern Tamil Nadu. The city sits amidst Noyyal's basin area and has an extensive tank system fed by the river and rainwater. [18][19] The state topped in the country to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals according to the annual report of NITI Aayog published in 2019. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Kerala produced several saints and movements. [443][444] It was developed to support ICT enabled education for schools in the state. [29][30] Keralam may stem from the Classical Tamil cherive-alam 'declivity of a hill or a mountain slope'[31] or chera alam 'land of the Cheras'. The southernmost extremity, Parassala, is just 54 kilometres (34 mi) away from the southern peninsular tip of India, Cape Comorin (Kanya Kumari). The Devas pleaded before Lord Vishnu, who took his fifth incarnation as Vamana and pushed Mahabali down to netherworld to placate the Devas. [360], In 2015, Kerala had the highest conviction rate of any state, over 77%. In eastern Kerala, a drier tropical wet and dry climate prevails. It covers small area of 32 sq . [283] Palakkad district is generally referred to as the Gateway of Kerala, due to the presence of the Palakkad Gap in the Western Ghats, through which the northern (Malabar) and southern (Travancore) parts of Kerala are connected to the rest of India via road and rail. Kerala has also given birth to numerous actors, such as Mohanlal, Satyan, Prem Nazir, Madhu, Sheela, Sharada, Miss Kumari, Jayan, Adoor Bhasi, Seema, Bharath Gopi, Thilakan, Mammootty, Vijaya Raghavan, Kalabhavan Mani, Indrans, Shobana, Nivin Pauly, Sreenivasan, Urvashi, Manju Warrier, Suresh Gopi, Jayaram, Murali, Shankaradi, Kavya Madhavan, Bhavana Menon, Prithviraj, Parvathy (actress), Jayasurya, Dulquer Salmaan, Oduvil Unnikrishnan, Jagathy Sreekumar, Nedumudi Venu, KPAC Lalitha, Innocent and Fahad Fazil. There is a significant Tamil population in Palakkad and Idukki districts. This page was last edited on 7 January 2021, at 07:04. The tall and rugged Himalayan mountains dominate the northern part of India. Highlands, Midlands and Lowlands. It has deserts, coastal areas, mountains and plateaus. [103] The Zamorin of Kozhikode permitted the new visitors to trade with his subjects such that Portuguese trade in Kozhikode prospered with the establishment of a factory and a fort. [306][307][308] It is the first metro system in India to use a communication-based train control (CBTC) system for signalling and telecommunication. [397][398], Ancient Christian tradition says that Christianity reached the shores of Kerala in 52 CE with the arrival of Thomas the Apostle, one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ. Our country has all the features that one expects from a country. [562] Many advertisements branded Kerala with the tagline Kerala, God's Own Country. The district also gets thunderstorm rains in the pre-monsoon months of April and May. Daily scheduled service has increased from 1,200,000 kilometres (750,000 mi) to 1,422,546 kilometres (883,929 mi),[294] using 6,241 buses on 6,389 routes. India's Jewish Heritage: Ritual, Art and Life-Cycle, Mumbai: Marg Publications, 2009. [471] Onam falls in the Malayalam month of Chingam (August–September)[472] and marks the commemoration of the homecoming of King Mahabali. Kerala is home to forty four rivers and the largest river is the Periyar River which is nearly 244kms long. 1. [122], By the end of 18th century, the whole of Kerala fell under the control of the British, either administered directly or under suzerainty. [55][56]:79 Kerala's spices attracted ancient Babylonians, Assyrians and Egyptians to the Malabar Coast in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BCE. The Hindu is the most read English language newspaper in the state, followed by The New Indian Express. New Statesman. [376] People in Kerala experience elevated incidence of cancers, liver and kidney diseases. [358][359] In 2019, Kerala recorded the highest child sex abuse complaints in India. 1987 pp. The Varkala, Chirayinkeezhu and Thiruvananthapuram taluks are in the midland and lowland regions, the Nedumangad taluk lies in the midland and highland regions, and the Neyyattinkara taluk stretches over all three. [146] The Western Ghats mountain chain is recognised as one of the world's eight "hottest hotspots" of biological diversity and is listed among UNESCO World Heritage Sites. After the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, the modern-day state of Kerala was formed by merging the Malabar district of Madras State (excluding Gudalur taluk of Nilgiris district, Topslip, the Attappadi Forest east of Anakatti), the state of Thiru-Kochi (excluding four southern taluks of Kanyakumari district, Shenkottai and Tenkasi taluks), and the taluk of Kasaragod (now Kasaragod District) in South Canara (Tulunad) which was a part of Madras State. 8 June 2008, Padmalal D, Maya K, Sreebha S & Sreeja R, 2007, Environmental effects of river sand mining: a case from the river catchments of. The land lies between 8° 18' North Latitude and between 74° 52' and 77° 24' East Longitude. It comprises of a narrow coastal strip bounded by the Western Ghats in the east and the Arabian Sea also called the Lakshadweep Sea on the west. The Kannur District surrounds Mahé on three sides with the Kozhikode District on the fourth. In the forests, sonokeling, Dalbergia latifolia, anjili, mullumurikku, Erythrina, and Cassia number among the more than 1,000 species of trees in Kerala. The first element of the name, however, is attested already in the Topography written by Cosmas Indicopleustes. The Indian state of Kerala borders with the states of Tamil Nadu on the south and east, Karnataka on the north and the Lakshadweep Sea coastline on the west. [311] Kannur had an airstrip used for commercial aviation as early as 1935 when Tata airlines operated weekly flights between Mumbai and Thiruvananthapuram – stopping at Goa and Kannur. 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